1st Republican President: Abraham Lincoln, Republican
1st African-American Senator: Hiram Rhodes Revels, Republican
1st African-American Congressman: Joseph Rainey, Republican
1st African-American Governor: Pickney Pinchback, Republican
1st Woman in Congress: Jeanette Rankin, Republican
1st Hispanic-American Senator: Octaviano Larrazolo, Republican
1st Woman to serve in both the Senate and the House of Representatives: Margaret Chase Smith, Republican
1st Asian Senator: Hiram Fong, Republican
1st Woman Supreme Court Justice: Sandra Day O'Connor, appointed by a Republican, Ronald Reagan
1st African-American Secretary of State: Colin Powell, appointed by George W. Bush
1st Woman African-American Secretary of State: Condoleeza Rice, appointed by George W. Bush
1863 Emancipation Proclamation: The first Republican President, Abraham Lincoln, issued an order freeing all slaves in the confederacy.
1965 13th Amendment: Republican President Abraham Lincoln abolishes slavery and any service done involuntarily (except by court order as a punishment for a crime.)
1865 End of the Civil War: Republican President Abraham Lincoln guides the north to victory in the Civil War and reunites the nation. Abraham Lincoln was shot and killed by Democrat John Wilkes-Booth.
1868 14th Amendment: Guaranteed equal protection under the laws. Granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States, which included former slaves recently freed. In addition, it forbids states from denying any person life, liberty or property, without due process of law or to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
1870 15th Amendment: Prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
1872 Yellowstone: Republican President Ulysses S. Grant established Yellowstone as the first National Park.
1898 Victory in the Spanish American War: Republican President William McKinley achieves victory in the Spanish American War and forces Spain to give up its claim on Cuba.
1902 Newlands Reclamation Act: Republican President Teddy Roosevelt provide necessary funding for irrigation. Initially, it started with the first 13 states, but additional states were then included. Funding came from the sale of semi-arid public land that had been owned by the government.
1904 Construction of the Panama Canal: Republican President Teddy Roosevelt takes control of the Panama Canal and builds it into one of the most crucial locations in world shipping.
1904 Roosevelt Corollary: Republican President Theodore Roosevelt added to the Monroe Doctrine establishing America as a type of police force for the Caribbean, Central and South America.
1906 American Antiquities Act: Republican President Theodore Roosevelt protected wildlife and public lands by creating the United States Forest Service (USFS) and establishing 150 national forests, 51 federal bird reserves, 4 national game preserves, 5 national parks, and 18 national monuments. During his presidency, Republican Theodore Roosevelt protected approximately 230 million acres of public land.
1906 Nobel Prize: Republican President Theodore Roosevelt was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. He was given this award, the first statesman ever to receive it, because of his work in negotiating peace for the Russo-Japanese war which took place from 1904 to 1905.
1906 Meat Inspection Act: Republican President Theodore Roosevelt passed the Meat Inspection Act which included inspection requirements, including: seeing animals before slaughter, separating diseased animals from healthy ones, destroying condemned meat, and sanitary inspections.
1906 Pure Food and Drug Act: Republican President Theodore Roosevelt passed the Pure Food and Drug Act.
1907 First Workmans Compensation Laws were passed:
1920 19th Amendment: Prohibits the states and the federal government from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex.
1924 Indian Citizenship Act: Republican President Calvin Coolidge signed into law the Indian Citizenship Act which granted citizenship to Native Americans.
1928 Construction of the Hoover Dam: Republican President Calvin Coolidge signed a law allowing the construction of the Hoover Dam to begin.
1936 Jessie Owens wins four gold medals in the Olympics: Republican Jessie Owens humiliated Hitler by winning 4 gold medals in the Berlin Olympics. Owens said, [he] "was treated marvelous by everyone. Anything any of the American athletes, including myself, wanted they got for us. My biggest thrill was when the American Flag was raised after my victory in the 100 meters." Then Democrat President, FDR responded to Owens legendary victory by refusing to invite him to the White House, prompting Owens to say, "Hitler didn't snub me – it was FDR who snubbed me. The President didn't even send me a telegram." Truman also ignored Owens, but when Republican Dwight Eisenhower became President, he made Jessie Owens the "Ambassador of Sports."
1947 22nd Amendment: Republican House and Senate established Presidential Term Limits.
1947 Jackie Robinson becomes the first black American to play in the Major Leagues: Republican Jackie Robinson broke the color barrier in Major League Baseball when the owner of the Brooklyn Dodgers, Republican Branch Rickey, brought him up to the major leagues.
1953 Refugee Relief Act: Republican President Dwight Eisenhower which resulted in the admission of 214,000 immigrants to the United States.
1956 The Interstate Highway System: Republican President Dwight Eisenhower begins construction of the Interstate highway system.
1956 Founded NASA: Republican President Dwight Eisenhower signed into law the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 which established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), a civilian space agency responsible for the space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
1956 People to People International (PTPI): Republican President Dwight Eisenhower founded PTPI on September 11, 1956 as part of the United States Information Agency. PTPI aims to enhance international understanding and friendship through educational, cultural and humanitarian activities involving the exchange of ideas and experiences directly among peoples of different countries and diverse cultures.
1957 Civil Rights Act: Republican President Eisenhower signed the Republican Congress’ 1960 Civil Rights Act which outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin after it survived a five-day, five-hour filibuster by 18 Senate Democrats.
1958 National Defense Education Act: Republican President Dwight Eisenhower signed the National Defense Education Act of September 1958 which provided funding to U.S. education institutions at all levels and aimed to improve the American education system particularly in the areas of science and technology.
1958 Alaska Statehood Act: Republican President Dwight Eisenhower signed the act that allowed Alaska to become the 49th U.S. state on January 3, 1959.
1959 Hawaii Admission Act: Republican President Dwight Eisenhower signed the act dissolved the Territory of Hawaii and established the State of Hawaii as the 50th state to be admitted into the Union.
1960 Civil Rights Act: Republican President Eisenhower enacted the Civil Rights Act of 1960 that established federal inspection of local voter registration polls and introduced penalties for anyone who obstructed someone’s attempt to register to vote.
1981 Reagan tax cuts: Republican President Ronald Reagan revitalized the listless U.S. economy with tax cuts that created a massive surge of jobs, economic growth, and prosperity.
1987 Tear Down This Wall: Republican President Ronald Reagan made a speech in West Berlin that triggered the end of the cold-war.
1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall: Republican President George H.W. Bush continued Ronald Reagan’s strong foreign policy and helped to begin German reunification.
1991 Fall of the Soviet Union: Carrying on his father’s and former President Reagan’s work, Republican President George W. Bush the Soviet Union dissolved and
1993 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START): Republican President George W. Bush set a goal of reducing their strategic nuclear arsenals from approximately 12,000 warheads to 3,000-3,500 warheads by 2003. In January 1993, three weeks before leaving office, Bush traveled to Moscow to sign the START II Treaty that codified those nuclear reductions.
THE REPUBLICAN Party
FOUNDING THE REPUBLICAN PARTY
On July 6, 1854, just after the anniversary of the nation, an anti-slavery state convention was held in Jackson, Michigan. The hot day forced the large crowd outside to a nearby oak grove. At this “Under the Oaks Convention” the first statewide candidates were selected for what would become the Republican Party.
United by a desire to abolish slavery, the Platform of the "Under the Oaks Convention" read: “…we will cooperate and be known as REPUBLICANS…” Prior to July, smaller groups had gathered in intimate settings like the schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin. However, the meeting in Jackson would be the first ever mass gathering of the Republican Party.
The name “Republican” was chosen, alluding to Thomas Jefferson’s Democratic-Republican Party and conveying a commitment to the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Party of Freedom
Though popularized in a Thomas Nast cartoon, the GOP’s elephant symbol originated during the 1860 campaign as a symbol of Republican strength. Republicans envisioned “free soil, free speech, free labor.” Under the leadership of President Abraham Lincoln, the GOP became the Party of the Union as well.
President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, but it was the entire Republican Party who freed the slaves. The 1864 Republican National Convention called for the abolition of slavery, and Congressional Republicans passed the 13th Amendment unanimously, with only a few Democrat votes.
The early women’s rights movement was solidly Republican, as it was a continuation of abolitionism. They were careful not to be overly partisan, but as did Susan B. Anthony, most suffragists favored the GOP. The 19th Amendment was written by a Republican senator and garnered greater support from Republicans than from Democrats.
Party of Prosperity
Low taxes, sound money, regulatory restraint: these were among the common sense economic policies established by the GOP that brought about decades of prosperity after the Civil War. Republicans encouraged innovation and the rule of law. Buttressed by Republican control in Congress, the McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt and Taft administrations cleared away obstacles to economic growth.
President Dwight Eisenhower and congressional Republicans appreciated the fact that the private sector, not government, is the engine of wealth creation. With his bold tax-cutting agenda, President Ronald Reagan revived the economy after years of Democrat malaise.
Party of Vision
Theodore Roosevelt embodies our Party’s traditional concern for the environment, but the Republican commitment to the environment actually goes back much further than that. For example, the world’s first National Park, Yellowstone, was established during the Ulysses Grant administration.
President Eisenhower advocated groundbreaking civil rights legislation and vigorously enforced the Brown v Board of Education decision, sending the 101st Airborne to Little Rock when chaos erupted following integration at Central High.
Ronald Reagan explained the difference between Democrats and Republicans in a way that cannot be improved upon: “Two visions of the future, two fundamentally different ways of governing – their government of pessimism, fear, and limits, or ours of hope, confidence, and growth. Their government sees people only as members of groups. Ours serves all the people of America as individuals.
President George H.W. Bush championed community and volunteer organizations and the tremendous power they have for doing good. He famously described them as “a brilliant diversity spread like stars, like a thousand points of light in a broad and peaceful sky.”
In the first decade of the 21st century, President George W. Bush made an unprecedented commitment to helping those in need beyond our shores through the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), an aid program for countries devastated by HIV/AIDS. Since its inception, PEPFAR has saved over a million lives and currently provides over 5 million people with life-saving treatments.
Party of Strength
President Reagan and President George H.W. Bush led western democracies to victory over Soviet tyranny in the Cold War. The George W. Bush administration maintained the military second-to-none and projected that power in the fight against international terrorism.
Party of the Future
Drawing inspiration from our Party’s history, today’s Republicans believe individuals, not government, make the best decisions; all people are entitled to equal rights; and decisions are best made close to home.
At the state level, the nation’s thirty Republican governors are making government more effective and efficient, spurring economic growth and striving to put more power in the hands of the people.
Nationally, Republicans recognize that the slow, bloated, top-down Washington bureaucracy is out-of-date in the 21st century. Our Party works to give Americans more choices—in health care, in education, in energy, and in the economy—and to free individuals and families from the intrusive overreach of federal bureaucrats.
The Party’s core principles of freedom and equal opportunity are as relevant today as at our founding, and they are the roadmap for American renewal in a new and interconnected world.
Town of Brookhaven
Area: 323.5 Square Miles (third largest Town in New York State)
Location: Central Suffolk County, Long Island, New York
Status: Suburban (Designated by voters in a 1978 referendum)
Population: 486,040 (2010 US Census)
Roadway: Over 2,000 miles
Coastline: 153 miles
North: Long Island Sound
East: Town of Riverhead and Town of Southampton
West: Town of Smithtown and Town of Islip
South: Atlantic Ocean